Guiding Question:

How did the importation of Chinese workers affect the shoemakers' union the Knights of St. Crispin's ideals of worker solidarity, economic justice and civic equality?


Goal Worksheet Document

Settlement Worksheet Document


Primary Sources

Testimony on Strike

Testimony, Massachusetts Bureau of Labor Statistics Report 1871, hearing regarding North Adams strike.


Articles on Chinese Workers at North Adams:

1) "Contract" -- [No Title], Pittsfield Sun, 06-30-1870; Volume: LXXI; Issue: 3641; Page: 1

2) "Board" -- "Adams," Pittsfield Sun; 08-04-; Volume: LXXI; Issue: 3646; Page: 2

3) Chinese New Year -- "The Chinese New Year's", Pittsfield Sun, 02-23-1871; Volume: LXXI; Issue: 3675; Page: 2


Secondary Sources

Anthony Lee, Shoemaker's Story: Being Chiefly about French Canadian Immigrants, Enterprising Photographers, Rascal Yankees, and Chinese Cobblers in a Nineteenth-Century Factory Town (Princeton University Press, 2008).

Additional Resources:

Mass Moments June 13, 1870 "Chinese Workers Arrive in North Adams"

Library of Congress, American Memory-- Images:

North Adams, MA, 1889 map.

General View, North Adams, MA, 1910-1920 (American Memory, LoC)

Shoemakers, photo c. 1840-1860

Chinese Shoe Maker, SF CA, c. 1910